Preheat oven to 400°F. Whisk together flour, sugar, baking powder, cinnamon, baking soda, and salt in a large bowl.
Grate the cold butter using a cheese grater. This is an easy way to get it into small pieces to incorporate in the dry ingredients. If you do not have a cheese grater, you can just cut into small cubes. Blend the grated butter in with the flour mixture using a pastry cutter or 2 knives. The mixture should be clumpy and look like course crumbs. Mix in the apple and pecans.
In a small measuring cup, mix together the buttermilk and vanilla. Mix into the flour mixture until JUST incorporated. DO NOT over mix, this will make the scones too dense.
Put a small amount of flour onto a clean surface and knead the dough briefly. Shape the dough into a circle that is about 1 ½ inches thick. Cut the circle in half and then each half into 4-5 wedges (depending on how big you want your scones).
Put the wedges on a baking sheet covered with parchment paper. Brush the tops with a little bit of milk and then lightly sprinkle with sugar and/or cinnamon.
Bake for 22-25 minutes until tops are golden brown and toothpick inserted comes out clean.
While scones are baking make the glaze. Add butter to small saucepan over medium-high heat and brown until it smells toasty, about 2-3 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in the powdered sugar, maple syrup, vanilla extract and salt.
Let the scones cool slightly and then drizzle on the glaze.